Who received the Nobel 50 years after the discovery


Year 1940 Russian scientist George Gamo was a professor at George Washington University in the United States. A brilliant student named Ralph Alpha was doing his PhD under Gamow. American astronomer Ewin Huckle spoke about the expansion of the universe.



He said that every object in the universe is moving away from each other. From Hubble’s theory, their gamma alpha came to mind, if all galaxies are moving away from each other, they must have been together at one time. That is, they were tied to one point! After that a great explosion took place from that point. The point then disintegrates into space.


Belgian scientist Georges Henri Lemitrie agreed with them.

There was no shortage of people to oppose. The most vocal opposition figure was the famous astronomer Frederick Hoyle. There are good reasons for his opposition.


He proposed a theory for the universe with the Indian scientist Jayant Vishnu Narlikor. Their theory is called Steadystead Theory. According to that theory, there is no problem of contraction and expansion of the universe. But according to Gamow’s theory, the universe can no longer stand still. Collapsed – Narlikor’s Steadystead Theory.

It was heavily attacked. Refuting Gammo-Alpha’s argument, he exclaims, ‘Ah, that hot Big Bang! If the hypothesis of this explosion is correct, there should be some ash left. Show me that fossil.

Near the end of the Ph.D., Alfar and Gamo began writing a joint dissertation. In that article, Gamow argued, if the universe was created in a big bang, there should be some remnants of it today. Gamow calculates that the radioactive radiation or spectrum that was created during the explosion, continues to decrease the spectral temperature of the universe as a result of the expansion. Its current temperature should be less than 5 Kelvin below absolute zero (minus 273 degrees Kelvin). Maybe it can be seen by looking in space. Scientists named that radiation Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, or CMBR.

Professor Emeritus James Peebles, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Physics acknowledges applause after he received his Nobel Prize from King Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden during the Nobel Prize Awards Ceremony at Concert Hall on December 10, 2019 in Stockholm, Sweden.

Robert Dick, a professor at Princeton University in the United States. With his student James Peebles. The two set off in search of that very cool ancient spectrum. There are no fewer sources of radiation in the universe. Finding the CMBR in the crowd of microwaves is millions of times more difficult than finding a lost needle in a haystack. But the brains of scientists are sharper than those of detectives. They work out the way to find the desired object by combining various possibilities and causes. Gammo has hinted at the possibility of finding the CMBR. The location of the CMBR can be determined by looking at the temperature of that radiation. There was already a method of determining the temperature of the radiation by observing the wavelength. That’s what Dick and Peebles wanted to use to find the CMBR. They were very close to success. But the end was not saved.


Year 1965 Two American scientists, Arno Penzius and Robert Wilson, were doing research at the Bell Telephone Lab in New Jersey. Actually they were researching microwave waves. They had a telescope with a diameter of 20 feet. They were getting traps to detect microwave radiation coming from the far reaches of space. However, they did not aim to discover the CMBR at all.


Penzius-Wilson had a huge detector. One day a noise unknown to the detector was detected. The two scientists could not figure out where this rumor was coming from. They thought the detector must have messed up. Found bird droppings in one corner of the detector. The scientists thought that bird droppings are the source of all the spoilage. This probably causes noise in the detector. The stool was cleared. Scientists thought that this time there will be no more noise. But no matter what, the noise kept coming. The scientists thought that there must be a fault in the device. No errors were found after various tests.


Penzius and Wilson were in great trouble. A combination of tearing the hair of the head. Then he thought, the noise is probably coming from a certain area of ​​space. So he turned the face of the detector to the other side. But no, it was no use. The result is the same. The buzz keeps coming. Another thought came to their mind. They knew that if any sound or radiation comes from the Earth’s atmosphere, the intensity of the sound is much higher if the face of the detector is held straight up. In comparison, the noise intensity will be much less if you face the horizon. But Penzius-Wilson found that no matter where the face of the detector was placed, the intensity of the noise remained the same. They are sure that this noise is coming from distant space. The most interesting thing is that it is coming from all sides of the universe and equally. Later discovered, this noise is coming from outside the galaxy.


But what is the source of this noise? No way that was coming to mind. Then they looked at the work of Dick and Peebles. And after analyzing them, they confirmed that the noise they discovered was the CMBR. Unbeknownst to themselves, Penzius and Wilson were discovering it. But he proved it along the way of Dick and Peebles. Pengius deduced the temperature of the source of that wave. Only 3 Kelvin! Amazing thing! So this radiation is called primordial radiation? The primordial radiation temperature would now be less than 5 Kelvin, Gamow said.


Princeton University physicists Bob Dick and James Peebles, on the other hand, had fun with George Gamow. As Fred Hoyle pointed out, the Big Bang fossils exist. So said George Gamow. After the Big Bang, the tumultuous baby universe formed, the light emitted from it is supposed to be still there. At least that’s what Dick and Peebles believed. They calculated that the primordial radiation evolved over time into microwave radiation. They were looking for that radiation in the detector.


On the other hand, Penzius and Wilson thought about this possibility. They thought they might have found the original wave of Dick and Peebles. The calculation proved that. A great discovery. This was proof of Friedman’s first hypothesis. The noise was actually waves emitted by the expansion of the universe. It was a step towards proving the Big Bang theory. The Penzius-Wilson duo also received recognition for this. In 1978, they won the Nobel Prize in Physics. They deserved it. But why not Dick and Peebles? They have shown a path, Penzius and Wilson have walked that path, so why not Dick and Peebles?


Fortunately for Penzius and Wilson, they got what they didn’t ask for. Dick-Peebles, on the other hand, didn’t get what they asked for. Dick-Peebles was denied the Nobel. George Gamow was also deprived. Because he didn’t live long enough to receive the Nobel Prize.


Robert Dick also died a long time ago. But James Peebles is still alive. And because he is alive, he won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2019 along with two other scientists. Of course, the other two were researching exoplanets. Peebles’ research on the other hand was about cosmology. He developed a framework for cosmology. Based on that framework, it is possible to create the concept of the universe. Again, his research on CMBR is the foundation of the research on dark matter and dark energy.


Even though it is very late, the Nobel Prize that has come to Peebles is a relief for science lovers all over the world. Because Peebles, like Stephen Hawking, does not have to be on the eternal list of Nobel laureates. At his last age, his name was cut from that list

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